While only savers with large pension pots are affected by this legislation, it’s important to be aware of the implications of exceeding the lifetime allowance.
Lifetime allowance table
In April 2018 the lifetime allowance increased in line with inflation and is currently £1,030,000. This means you can withdraw up to £1,030,000 during your retirement, before you’ll need to pay the lifetime allowance charge.
The lifetime allowance applies to all of the personal or workplace pensions you have, including defined benefit pensions and defined contribution pensions. It does not, however, include your State Pension allowance. The tax you’ll pay if you exceed the lifetime allowance is on top of income tax.
How to calculate lifetime allowance
When you start drawing your pension, the value of your withdrawals will be deducted from your lifetime allowance and should be clearly marked on your statements. While the lifetime allowance won’t affect everyone, it’s worth calculating the expected value of your withdrawals in retirement to avoid any potential charges. It’s especially valuable to do so if you’ve built up a sizeable pension pot.
- Defined contribution pensions
Most people will have a defined contribution pension which will be valued based on how much money they’ve paid in and how their investments have performed. It’s this value that will be checked against your lifetime allowance each time you take money out of your pension.
- Defined benefit pensions
If you have a defined benefit pension, or final salary pension, the value will be based on your salary and the number of years you’ve worked for your employer. If you have a defined benefit pension you can calculate the total value by multiplying your expected annual pension by 20. If you’re eligible to receive a tax-free lump sum it would also need to be included in this calculation.
Lifetime allowance charge
The amount of extra tax you pay if you exceed the lifetime allowance will vary depending on how the money is paid to you. If you take your pension as a lump sum, 55% tax will be charged and 25% on top of the usual income tax if you take it another way, such as drawdown or via an annuity.
Lifetime allowance charge examples
Here are some examples to demonstrate how the lifetime allowance charge works.
- Example 1
If you have a pension with a value of £1,000,000 you won’t have to pay any additional tax as you are within the lifetime allowance of £1,030,000.
- Example 2
If you have a pension with a value of £1,035,000 you can draw the first £1,030,000 before tax is charged. Tax will then be applied to the £5,000 excess. If you take it as a lump sum you’ll pay £2,750 tax (55%), but if you take it through drawdown or an annuity you’ll pay just £1,250 (25%), plus income tax.
- Example 3
If you have a pension with a value of £2,000,000 you can draw the first £1,030,000 before tax is charged. Tax will then be applied to the £970,000 excess. Take it as a lump sum and pay £533,500 tax (55%) or via drawdown or an annuity and pay £242,500 (25%), plus income tax.
Lifetime allowance increases
Following this year’s increase, the government has confirmed that it intends to index the lifetime allowance annually in line with the Consumer Prices Index (CPI). This means the lifetime allowance can be expected to rise in line with inflation for the 2019/20 tax year.
The lifetime allowance has a history of rising and falling, with a peak of £1,800,000 and a low of £1,000,000 in the last decade. Although the discrepancies from year to year can seem small, they can make a big difference to savers with larger pots and generate significant tax savings.
If you’ve built up a high value of benefits you may be able to apply for ‘protection’ against tax charges. There are four main options; primary protection, enhanced protection, fixed protection and individual protection.
If you think the value of your pensions is approaching the lifetime allowance you should consider taking action. PensionBee can help you calculate how much your pensions are worth and help you find any old workplace pensions you’ve lost along the way. Sign up to PensionBee today and combine your pensions into one simple plan that you can easily manage online.